Friday, September 26, 2014

MOMs are from Mars

INDIANS cheered on September 24th after their scientists smoothly steered a spacecraft, the Mangalyaan, into orbit just above Mars. Since the launch last November, the Mars Orbiter Mission appears to have gone without a hitch. Standing by the craft’s handlers in Bangalore, Narendra Modi, India’s prime minister, puffed with pride.





The Mangalyaan carries few sensors and will discover little of scientific merit. But to point that out is both petty and beside the point. The main purpose was to get a craft there quickly and cheaply. The mission reportedly cost just $74m, which is much less than setting up a cricket team in the Indian Premier League.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) uploaded one of the photos to its Facebook page, showing an orange crater-marked surface with dark holes, taken from a height of 7,300 km.
India becomes the first Asian nation to reach the red planet.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Make in India

Make in India’ pitch from Sept. 25

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Bigg Boss 8

Salman Khan as a dashing pilot  in the new teasers of Bigg Boss 8, has increased the curiosity level of the viewers. In the promo, the Bollywood actor and Bigg Boss host promises to take the contestants, as well as the viewers, on a thrilling flight.


This year's theme will reflect in the new set of the Bigg Boss house, located in Lonavla, which has been designed to resemble a jumbo aircraft.  Sources further revealed that the house will also have a waiting lounge and two different sections for Economy and Business class.

The new season, starting on September 21, has already locked in on some prominent celebrities who are expected to give us daily dosage of drama for 100 days. According to channel sources, actress Minissha Lamba will be one of the biggest draw this year and will be accompanied by model turned actor Upen Patel. 


Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Ganesh Immersion .

 With the immersion of the tallest Khairatabad Ganesh idol (60 ft) .The 11-day-long Vinayaka Chaturthi festivities concluded here on Tuesday.



Idol immersion in various water bodies in Greater
Hyderabad passed off peacefully. It was for the first time that immersion went on for two days at the end of the festivities.
The annual ritual, which now become a massive event in Greater
Hyderabad where an estimated 50,000 idols in different sizes have been immersed in various water bodies in the city and on its outskirts in the last two days.
On the second day too, police diverted traffic in different parts of the city that caused inconvenience to school 
children and office-goers.

Bhagynagar Ganesh Utsav Samiti president and VHP International president G Raghava Reddy, vice-presidents N Karodimal, Rama Raju and Krishna Reddy, general secretary Bhagavant Rao.

Apart from thanking all the devotees as well as Ganesh Mandapam Management Committees, the BGUS conveyed special thanks to the Telangana government for making the required arrangements and maintaining law and order.
It also thanked the Hyderabad  police commissioners, GHMC, water board, HMDA, RTC, railways, irrigation, electricity and transport departments as well as Dharmic  organisations and NGOs.
The GHMC took up sanitation drive all along the procession routes by deploying 162 Ganesh Action Teams (GATs), one for every 4 km. Each GAT consists of one sanitary supervisor, three SFAs and 21 workers, totaling over 3,000 workers. Nineteen 25-tonner vehicles, sixty 6-tonners and 12 JCBs were pressed into service
.
The idols were immsersed in Kapra Cheruvu, Saroornagar Lake, Rajanna Bavi, Mir Alam Tank, Palle Cheruvu, Pattikunta Cheruvu, Durgam Cheruvu, Malkam Cheruvu, Gopinagar Cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu, Gangaram, Gurunatham Cheruvu, JP Nagar, Kaidamma Kunta in Hafizpet, Erla Cheruvu, Manjeera Road, Vinayaka Nagar Rayasamudram Lake, RC Puram, Sakicheruvu, Patancheruvu, IDL Tank,
Pragathinagar Cheruvu, Hasmathpet Cheruvu, Sunnam Cheruvu, Pariki Cheruvu, Venellagadda Cheruvu, Suraram Cheruvu, Kotha Cheruvu and Safilguda lake.

Apple iPhone 6

Apple iPhone 6 & iPhone 6 Plus to launch in India on October 17

There's good news for Apple fans in India. Apple will make its new smartphones, the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus available in India from October 17.



The launch will come bang in the middle of festive season, and is a departure from Apple's earlier India strategy, when the new versions of their iPhones were made available around November. Apple plans to make the new smartphones available in 115 countries by the end of this year.


The new iPhones have the power button on the side. Apple has made 1.3 million apps available on their new smartphones. While Apple claims that iPhone 6 Plus has 24 hours of 3G talk time..

Both phones have an 8MP camera with 'True-tone flash', 1.5 micron pixels. The cameras have an iSight sensor. "With these new cameras, panoramas can be up to 43 megapixels. Schiller said that face detection and blink detection is better too. 





 Apple has done pretty much everything that market and customers demand. These new iPhones have completely new form factors, the look and feel is radically different, the bigger screen sizes is in line with current best sellers, they come with higher resolution displays on these bigger screens, they have faster processors, the power button on the side is an ergonomic correction that was much needed, new sensors can make sure that you know how many stairs you climbed up .




Friday, September 5, 2014

Mary Kom Movie review

Film  :   Mary Kom
Cast   :   Priyanka Chopra, Darshan Kumaar, Sunil Thapa


There is no doubt that MC Mary Kom is among one of the finest sports persons India has ever produced, and her achievements can be chronicled on celluloid, but are we ready to visualise a girl from a poor Manipuri village as it is? Director Omung Kumar’s Mary Kom is a highly fictionalised account of what actually happened, and in the process it turned out to be one of those films which are made just for whistles and quick money.  






Priyanka Chopra may not have tried to look like the boxer on screen but as she says, she has worked hard to represent her spirit and personality. "We did not want to imitate her. We are making a Hindi film and we wanted the reach of the film to be wide. I am speaking a lot more in Hindi than Mary speaks and not in Manipuri. And I knew my face would never look like her we did prosthetics and lot of test. I don't look like Mary. I don't have the features like her, but I have given blood and soul for this film to make sure I represent Mary's spirit and her personality to the best of my ability," Priyanka had said in her interview.
You may miss picturesque landscapes of Manipur as most of the film is set inside indoor stadiums, but the editors have done a fantastic job. The premises keep changing before you go out for snacks. The tempo of the film is also acceptable, provided you take it as just another Bollywood ‘masala’ film. 

Slated to release on Teacher's Day, the film has already been exempted from entertainment tax in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Priyanka now hopes that the Delhi government declares the movie tax-free as well.












The world's fastest computer


Google is building the world's fastest computer 

The internet search company announced a new partnership with researchers at the University of California Santa Barbara to develop "quantum computing" technology.

The science behind quantum computing is highly technical and still very theoretical. In simple terms, quantum computers make use of quantum bits to process information, as opposed to the binary system of ones and zeros used by traditional computer processors.

China is currently home to the world's fastest computer, the Tianhe-2 supercomputer, which is capable of nearly 55 quadrillion of calculations per second. A quantum computer could make that look like a snail.
The search giant has already been working with scientists at D-Wave Systems on a quantum computer system. D-Wave is developing what some call the first commercially viable quantum computer, the "Vesuvius." It is also working with NASA on a 1,000 qubit "Washington" processor.







Wednesday, September 3, 2014

WhatsApp with free voice calling


 If media reports are to be believed, mobile messaging service WhatsApp is set to launch a free voice
 calling feature for its 600 million active users. 
The translation feature available in the latest version of WhatsApp has made it clear that the voice calling plug-in is on it's way.
While the voice calling feature is all set to be released on WhatsApp, there is no update if there is going to be a similar feature on Facebook, it added.
WhatsApp has witnessed a 15 per cent rise in its traffic since the announcement that Facebook is acquiring the service.
"The leaked images of the upcoming user interface shows that the app has been enabled with other language translations which will be displayed at the time a person receives a call via WhatsApp," a report on thefusejoplin.com stated. 

WhatsApp has crossed 50 million active users in India alone.

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Ebola threatens food security in West Africa

Ebola Virus Disease:

 EVD is a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding. EVD spreads through direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people. No vaccine for EVD is available and severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. During this outbreak, EVD has killed approximately 55% of those infected. 



The FAO issued a special alert for Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, the three countries most affected by the outbreak, which has killed around 1,550 people since the virus was detected in the remote jungles of southeastern Guinea in March.
Restrictions on people's movements and the establishment of quarantine zones to contain the spread of the hemorrhagic fever has led to panic buying, food shortages and price hikes in countries ill-prepared to absorb the shock.
"Even prior to the Ebola outbreak, households in some of the most affected areas were spending up to 80 percent of their incomes on food," said Vincent Martin, head of an FAO unit in Dakar which is coordinating the agency's response.
Cash crops like palm oil, cocoa and rubber will be seriously affected, squeezing the purchasing power of many families, who will also lose income and nutrition due to the ban on bush meat.
Border crossing closures and the reduction of trade through seaports have tightened food supplies in the three countries, which are all net cereal importers, and propelled prices upwards, exacerbated by higher transport costs.
The UN World Food Program and FAO have approved an emergency program to deliver 65,000 tonnes of food to 1.3 million people affected by Ebola over a three-month period.
The price of cassava at a market in the Liberian capital Monrovia rose 150 percent in the first weeks of August, the FAO said, adding that currency depreciation in Sierra Leone and Liberia was likely to force prices up further.


Monday, September 1, 2014

A dozen McDonald's outlets closed in Russia

Russian Courts Uphold Closure of McDonald's Branches


Russia's consumer watchdog agency is forcing the American fast-food chain to temporarily close eight more outlets across the country over accusations of sanitary violations, bringing the total closur e count to 12. All are owned by the company.
Earlier in the month, the regulator made McDonald's close four restaurants, including its flagship outlet in Moscow that first opened to the public in 1990.


It's widely suspected that the closures are politically motivated. Many American and European companies are under pressure in Russia as Cold War-style tensions make it increasingly difficult for Western brands to operate

McDonald's is also facing a lawsuit from Rospotrebnadzor in a Moscow court. The regulator is seeking a ban on some of the chain's most popular hamburgers and milkshakes after the regulator said it uncovered alleged food-safety violations in two branches in northern Russia. A hearing that had been scheduled for Aug. 13 has been postponed until Sept. 11.
The closure of the Moscow restaurants kick-started a flurry of unscheduled inspections of McDonald's restaurants across the country, but last week Deputy Prime Minister Olga Golodets said there were no plans for an inspection of the whole chain. The head of the regulator, Anna Popova, also brushed off accusations that the inspections and closures were politically motivated.

Sunday, August 31, 2014

P.M Mr.Modi in Japan.

This saturday to big nations top shoots meet to create history, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Saturday reached Japan amid "great expectations" that the five-day trip will open 

new vistas in bilateral ties and Strategic and Global Partnership to a higher level.


He landed on Osaka Airport and will meet Prime Minister of japan Shinzo Abe in kyota.


 

PM visit to Japan will have been on major issues in the fields of defense, civil nuclear and infrastructure besides commerce.


First stop Kyoto

Japan is always forerunner in the major development of India and Indian projects like Delhi metro, highways, flyovers, etc. This visit, the PM will travel to Kyoto, the 'smart city' of Japan, to see the experiment there considering that he intends to build 100 smart cities in India.

The two leaders will have substantive summit meeting in Tokyo on September 1 during which the two sides will look at ways to take the Strategic and Global Partnership forward.

India has "great expectations" from the visit, the External Affairs Ministry has said.

The main focused agendas of this visit are as under:

Cooperation in the fields of defense, civil nuclear, infrastructure development and rare earth materials are expected to top the agenda of the discussions.

Some major agreements, including in defense and civil nuclear sectors, are expected to be signed. Among the agreements to be signed is one on joint production of rare earth materials.


"I am keenly looking forward to my visit to Japan at the invitation of my good friend, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, for the annual summit between India and Japan," Modi said in his pre-departure statement.


Noting that this will be his first bilateral visit outside the immediate neighbourhood as Prime Minister, he said it underlines "the high priority" that Japan receives in India's foreign and economic policies.


"It is also a reflection of Japan's paramount importance in my vision for development and prosperity in India and in peace, stability and prosperity in Asia at large," Modi said.


"I am confident that my visit will write a new chapter in the annals of the relations between Asia's two oldest democracies and take our Strategic and Global Partnership to the next higher level," he said



Tuesday, July 1, 2014

Network Communications


Network Communications
How Data is packaged

At first, one might assume that data is sent as a continuous stream of ones and zeros from one computer to another. In fact, data is broken down into small, manageable packets, each wrapped with the essential information needed to get it from its source to the correct destination. This lesson introduces the concept of packets as the basic building blocks of network data communications.
After this lesson, you will be able to:
  • Define the term "packet," including its function and components.
  • Describe the contents and function of each packet component: header, data, and trailer.

The Function of Packets in Network Communications

Data usually exists as rather large files. However, networks cannot operate if computers put large amounts of data on the cable at the same time. A computer sending large amounts of data causes other computers to wait (increasing the frustration of the other users) while the data is being moved. This is not called "sharing"; it is called "monopolizing the network." There are two reasons why putting large chunks of data on the cable at one time slows down the network:
  • Large amounts of data sent as one large unit tie up the network and make timely interaction and communications impossible because one computer is flooding the cable with data.
  • The impact of retransmitting large units of data further multiplies network traffic.
These effects are minimized when the large data units are reformatted into smaller packages for better management of error correction in transmission. This way, only a small section of data is affected, and, therefore, only a small amount of data must be retransmitted, making it relatively easy to recover from the error.

Figure 1: Large continuous streams of data slow down the network
In order for many users at once to transmit data quickly and easily across the network, the data must be broken into small, manageable chunks. This way, users each get their share of access to the network. These chunks are called packets, or frames. Although the terms "packet" and "frame" are often used interchangeably, there are some differences based on the type of network. This lesson uses the term "packet," meaning "a unit of information transmitted as a whole from one device to another on a network."
NOTE


"Device" is a generic term for a computer subsystem. Printers, serial ports, and disk drives are often referred to as devices; such subsystems frequently require their own controlling software, called device drivers. Packets are the basic units of network communication. Figure 3.6 shows data that is being broken into packets. With data divided into packets, individual transmissions are speeded up so that every computer on the network has more opportunities to transmit and receive data. At the target (receiving) computer, the packets are collected and reassembled in the order of the original data.
Figure 3.6 Breaking data into packets
When the network operating system at the sending computer breaks the data into packets, it adds special control information to each frame. This makes it possible to:
  • Send the original, disassembled data in small chunks.
  • Reassemble the data in the proper order when it reaches its destination.
  • Check the data for errors after it has been reassembled.

Packet Structure

Packets can contain several types of data including:
  • Information, such as messages or files.
  • Certain types of computer control data and commands, such as service requests.
  • Session control codes, such as error correction that indicate the need for a retransmission.

Packet Components

All packets have certain components in common. These include:
  • A source address that identifies the sending computer.
  • The data that is intended for transmission.
  • A destination address that identifies the recipient.
  • Instructions that tell network components how to pass the data along.
  • Information that tells the receiving computer how to connect the packet to other packets in order to reassemble the complete data package.
  • Error-checking information to ensure that the data arrives intact.
Figure 3.7 shows these packet components grouped into three sections: header, data, and trailer.
http://pluto.ksi.edu/~cyh/cis370/ebook/images/F03xx07.JPG
Figure 3.7 Packet components
Header
The header includes:
  • An alert signal to indicate that the packet is being transmitted.
  • The source address.
  • The destination address.
  • Clock information to synchronize transmission.
Data
This describes the actual data being sent. This part of the packet varies in size, depending on the network. The data section on most networks varies from 512 bytes—or 0.5 kilobytes (KB)—to 4 KB.
Because most original data strings are much longer than 4k, data must be broken into chunks small enough to be put into packets. It takes many packets to complete the transmission of a large file.
Trailer

The exact content of the trailer varies depending on the communication method, or protocol. However, the trailer usually contains an error-checking component called a cyclical redundancy check (CRC). The CRC is a number produced by a mathematical calculation on the packet at its source. When the packet arrives at its destination, the calculation is made again. If the results of both calculations are the same, this indicates that the data in the packet has remained stable. If the calculation at the destination differs from the calculation at the source, this means the data has changed during the transmission. In that case, the CRC routine signals the source computer to retransmit the data.     

Introduction to CCNA


Definition of a Network
When you have two or more computers connected to each other, you have a network. The purpose of a network is to enable the sharing of files and information between multiple systems. The Internet could be described as a global network of networks. Computer networks can be connected through cables, such as Ethernet cables or phone lines, or wirelessly, using wireless networking cards that send and receive data through the air.

video

Advantages & Disadvantages of Networking
·         Advantages of Computer Networking
1. Easy Communication and Speed
It is very easy to communicate through a network. People can communicate efficiently using a network with a group of people. They can enjoy the benefit of emails, instant messaging, telephony, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc.
2. Ability to Share Files, Data and Information
This is one of the major advantages of networking computers. People can find and share information and data because of networking. This is beneficial for large organizations to maintain their data in an organized manner and facilitate access for desired people.
3. Sharing Hardware
Another important advantage of networking is the ability to share hardware. For an example, a printer can be shared among the users in a network so that there’s no need to have individual printers for each and every computer in the company. This will significantly reduce the cost of purchasing hardware.
4. Sharing Software
Users can share software within the network easily. Networkable versions of software are available at considerable savings compared to individually licensed version of the same software. Therefore large companies can reduce the cost of buying software by networking their computers.
5. Security
Sensitive files and programs on a network can be password protected. Then those files can only be accessed by the authorized users. This is another important advantage of networking when there are concerns about security issues. Also each and every user has their own set of privileges to prevent them accessing restricted files and programs.
6. Speed
Sharing and transferring files within networks is very rapid, depending on the type of network. This will save time while maintaining the integrity of files.
·         Disadvantages of Networking
1. Breakdowns and Possible Loss of Resources
One major disadvantage of networking is the breakdown of the whole network due to an issue of the server. Such breakdowns are frequent in networks causing losses of thousands of dollars each year. Therefore once established it is vital to maintain it properly to prevent such disastrous breakdowns. The worst scenario is such breakdowns may lead to loss of important data of the server.
2. Expensive to Build
Building a network is a serious business in many occasions, especially for large scale organizations. Cables and other hardware are very pricey to buy and replace.
3. Security Threats
Security threats are always problems with large networks. There are hackers who are trying to steal valuable data of large companies for their own benefit. So it is necessary to take utmost care to facilitate the required security measures.
4. Bandwidth Issues
In a network there are users who consume a lot more bandwidth than others. Because of this some other people may experience difficulties.
Although there are disadvantages to networking, it is a vital need in today’s environment. People need to access the Internet, communicate and share information and they can’t live without that. Therefore engineers need to find alternatives and improved technologies to overcome issues associated with networking. Therefore we can say that computer networking is always beneficial to have even if there are some drawbacks.


Network Classifications – LAN, MAN, and WAN

LAN
A local area network is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building, using network media.

MAN

A metropolitan area network is a computer network in which two or more computers or communicating devices or networks which are geographically separated but in same metropolitan city and are connected to each other are said to be connected on MAN.


WAN

A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased telecommunication lines. Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations.



Network Topologies

What is a network topology? In communication networks, a topology is a usually schematic description of the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting lines. There are two ways of defining network geometry: the physical topology and the logical (or signal) topology.

Bus Topology
In the bus network topology, every workstation is connected to a main cable called the bus. Therefore, in effect, each workstation is directly connected to every other workstation in the network.

Star Topology
In the star network topology, there is a central computer or server to which all the workstations are directly connected. Every workstation is indirectly connected to every other through the central computer.
Ring Topology
In the ring network topology, the workstations are connected in a closed loop configuration. Adjacent pairs of workstations are directly connected. Other pairs of workstations are indirectly connected, the data passing through one or more intermediate nodes.

Mesh Topology
The mesh network topology employs either of two schemes, called full mesh and partial mesh. In the full mesh topology, each workstation is connected directly to each of the others. In the partial mesh topology, some workstations are connected to all the others, and some are connected only to those other nodes with which they exchange the most data.

Wireless Topology
In any network setup, network topology plays an important role without which network cannot be established whatsoever. In other words, whenever two or more machines are connected to each other, a topology is automatically formed. Unlike wired networks that have multiple topologies, wireless networks have only two topologies namely Infrastructure and Ad Hoc. Since wireless networks work on unguided media, it makes sense to have limited number of topologies while configuring the wireless network setups. Moreover, since wireless networks are a bit complicated configure as compared to the wired networks, it is essential for the administrators to have complete and in-depth knowledge of wireless networking before they finally start establishing wireless networks in production environments.

Hybrid Topology

Before starting about Hybrid topology, we saw that a 
network topology is a connection of various links and nodes, communicating with each other for transfer of data.
Now let’s discuss what Hybrid Network topology is and why it finds its application in Wide Area Networks. Hybrid, as the name suggests, is mixture of two different things. Similarly in this type of topology we integrate two or more different topologies to form a resultant topology which has good points (as well as weaknesses) of all the constituent basic topologies rather than having characteristics of one specific topology. This combination of topologies is done according to the requirements of the organization.

For example, if there exist a ring topology in one office department while a bus topology in another department, connecting these two will result in Hybrid topology. Remember connecting two similar topologies cannot be termed as Hybrid topology. Star-Ring and Star-Bus networks are most common examples of hybrid network.




Basic Administration Network Models

Client/Server Network
An architecture in which the user's PC (the client) is the requesting machine and the server is the supplying machine, both of which are connected via a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) such as the Internet. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, client/server was the hot buzzword as applications were migrated from minicomputers and mainframes with input/output terminals to networks of desktop computers.

With ubiquitous access to company LANs and the Internet, almost everyone works in a client/server environment today. However, to be true client/server, both client and server must share in the business processing. To understand this principle, follow the examples below of a query to a hypothetical database of a million records, each 1,000 bytes long. Notice the amount of data flowing over the network.
Network operating systems can be based on a client/server architecture in which a server enables multiple clients to share resources.[1] Client/server network operating systems allow the network to centralize functions and applications in one or more dedicated file servers. The server is the center of the system, allowing access to resources and instituting security. The network operating system provides the mechanism to integrate all the components on a network to allow multiple users to simultaneously share the same resources regardless of physical location.[3][4]
·         Examples:
·         Novell NetWare
·         Windows Server
·         Banyan VINES
Advantages
·         Centralized servers are more stable.
·         Security is provided through the server.
·         New technology and hardware can be easily integrated into the system.
·         Servers are able to be accessed remotely from different locations and types of systems.
Disadvantages
·         Cost of buying and running a server are high.
·         Dependence on a central location for operation.
·         Requires regular maintenance and updates.


Peer-to-Peer Network
A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a type of decentralized and distributed network architecture in which individual nodes in the network (called"peers") act as both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to centralized client–server model where client nodes request access to resources provided by central servers.
Networks in which all computers have equal status are called peer-to-peer or P2P networks.
In a peer-to-peer network, tasks (such as searching for files or streaming audio/video) are shared amongst multiple interconnected peers who each make a portion of their resources (such as processing powerdisk storage or network bandwidth) directly available to other network participants, without the need for centralized coordination by servers.[1]
In a peer-to-peer network operating system users are allowed to share resources and files located on their computers and access shared resources from others. This system is not based with having a file server or centralized management source. A peer-to-peer network sets all connected computers equal; they all share the same abilities to use resources available on the network.[3]
·         Examples:
·         AppleShare used for networking connecting Apple products.
·         Windows for Workgroups used for networking peer-to-peer windows computers.



Network Operating Systems (NOS)
Network operating system refers to software that implements an operating system of some kind that is oriented to computer networking. For example, one that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions.[1] The network operating system is designed to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks.
·         JUNOS, used in routers and switches from Juniper Networks,
·         Cisco IOS (formerly "Cisco Internetwork Operating System").
·         TiMOS, used in routers from Alcatel-Lucent
·         VRP (Versatile Routing Platform), used in routers from Huawei.